Climate system comprise interacting parts like hydrosphere (water), cryosphere (ice and permafrost), atmosphere (air), biosphere (living things) and lithosphere (earth crust and upper mantle). Changes in climate has many negative consequences and its global impact has observable effects on the environment.Changes in climate can be viewed as the combination of several natural forces occurring over diverse timescales.Effects that scientists had foreseen in the past would result from worldwide climate change are now happening like loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and more intense heat waves. These effects will result in increase in temperature, affecting ecosystem and communities globally. Varying environment is projected to cause more stress and water, energy, wildlife, agriculture, ecosystems, and human health are experiencing the effects of a changing climate.Climate change is imperative in variety of fields including horticulture, zoology, organic science, topography and geology. Climate change involves alterationinprecipitation patterns, ocean currents, winds and other related measures od earth’s climate in addition to changes in air temperature.
Global warming is used specifically to refer to any warming of near-surface air. When carbon dioxide (CO2) and other air pollutants collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that bounced off the earth’s surface result in Global Warming and their impacts are significant and being felt across the globe. CO2 makes its way into the atmosphere through different routes. The biggest contributor to emissions that warm the globe is CO2 release as a result of burning fossil fuels and deforestation is also a large contributor to excess CO2 in the atmosphere. It is related to the more general phenomenon of climate change that define changes in totality of attributes that define climate. Rise in heat is due to burning of fossil fuels that release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere which in turn trap warmth from the sun and drive up surface and air temperatures.
Pollution is a serious change in the physical or characteristic of water, air, and soil that may potentially impact the life or result in harmful effects. Contamination is the nearness of a poison in nature and detrimentally affects the earth. All living creatures will face serious complications that makes hurtful and lethal impacts living things as a result of pollution. They can appear as synthetic substances or vitality, for example, commotion, warmth or light. Contamination is frequently delegated point source contamination or non-point source contamination. Air, water, soil contamination and light contamination also are harming the nature at a disturbing rate. Air contamination is one among the most destructive type of contamination and is caused by the harmful smoke such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides produced via autos, trucks, trains, and other industrial facilities. Lethal and other fatal contamination also influences over 200 million individuals worldwide.
Toxicants are harmful substance that includes industrial chemicals and insecticides that are released to the environment as result of human activities. These toxicants include mutagens, allergens, carcinogens, neurotoxin and endocrine disrupters. There are various sources of environmental toxicity like organic and inorganic pollutants, pesticides and biological agentscontribute to the presence of toxicants in our food, water and air. These sources can have harmful effects on living organisms. Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium exhibit harmful effects and result in causing risks on human and environmental health. Exposure to toxicants can have long term health impacts among organisms. The effect of toxicants on the environment is determined by the amount of the chemical that is released, the type and concentration of the chemical, and where it is found.
Waste Management is the disposal, collection and transportation of wastes products, garbage and offer verity of solutions to recycling products that don’t belong to trash. The process involves treating solid as well as liquid waste. The procedure of converting waste materials into some new and useful materials is known as Recyclingand over time it conserves energy. The whole knowledge to re-using garbage as a useful resource is extremely important for all businesses and households. The wastage of useful materials can be reduced by recycling thus it reduces energy usage, air pollution (incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling).There are manifold advantages to treating and managing waste and biggest benefit of managing waste is that it ultimately leads to a better and fresher environment. When waste management is accomplished in a right way, it not only eliminates the subsequent waste but also lessens the impact and the intensity of detrimental greenhouse gases like carbon-di-oxide, carbon mono-oxide, and methane that are frequently exuded from accumulated wastes in landfills.
Changes in global environment have increased negative consequences for future human well-being. These changes raise queries about whether global civilization is on a sustainable path or is consuming too much by diminishing vital natural capital. The augmented scale of economic activity and the resultant increasing influences on a finite Earth arises from both major demographic changes including population growth, shifts in age structure, urbanization, and spatial redistributions through migration and rising per capita income and shifts in consumption patterns. Economics and earth system sciences is very important for understanding positive and negative influences of alternatives and the trade-offs involved. Economics combined with other social and behavioural sciences is vital for learning and understanding how it might be possible to shift human behaviour toward achieving sustainable development. Ecological economics, environmental economics, and natural resource economics along with large bodies of research is crucial to the sustainable development challenge.
Over the years, Biofuels (liquid fuel for transport produced from biomass) have grown tremendously because of considerably less emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) than conventional fuels and represent around 3% of road transport fuels worldwide. The biggest advantage is that they can be blended with existing fuels as an effective way of reducing CO2 emissions in the transport sector. Their growth and utilization are largely driven by the introduction of new energy policies in Europe, the USA and Brazil that call for more renewable, lower-carbon fuels for transport. Today biofuels represent around 3% of road transport fuels in use around the world. Currently, they are produced from agricultural crops termed as conventional biofuels. Novel techniques and processes that produce fuels from waste, inedible crops or forestry products are being established. The newly developed fuels are known as advanced, or second-generation biofuels. Advanced biofuels are likely to become the primary form of biofuels in the future because of their increased sustainable properties. Different waste feedstocks are employed to produce transport fuels that contribute to CO2 emissions in a decreased fashion when compared to conventional fossil fuels. Some biofuels can be blended with traditional fuels and others are fully compatible with present vehicles and can be used as whole replacements for conventional fuels.
Oceanography is the branch of science that deals with the study of physical and biological aspects of oceans. This fundamental study of Earth Science includes waves, ocean currents, ecosystem dynamics, geology of the sea floor, fluxes of various chemical substance in the ocean. Marine biology principally works on issues like costal pollution, environmental balance, alternative energy, weather forecasting and coastal management. Other primary applications involve discovering drug research papers, finding solutions to habitat destruction, inventing and developing new solutions to limit invasive species. Past few decades saw the rise in commercial plastic production and result in plastic contamination in marine environment causing adverse effects. It is reported that global production of plastics exceeded 300 million metric tons per year as compared to 50 million metric tons produced annually fifty years ago. Heat content of the ocean play crucial role in deciding the temperature of the surface of ocean. This will largely influence the level of ocean and streams.
Natural hazards are commonly referred to a naturally occurring phenomena causing environmental pollution, degradation and accidentsand threaten lives and livelihoods and result in billions of dollars in damage. There are a range of challenges, such as climate change, unplanned urbanization. This is a result of either rapid or slow onset events such as geophysical hazard leading toearthquakes, landslides, tsunamis and volcanicactivity, hydrological (avalanches and floods), climatologicalresulting in extreme temperature, drought and wildfires and meteorological hazards causing cyclones, storms and wave surges. Natural disaster is that the consequence once a natural hazard affects humans. A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural cataclysm in areas without susceptibility like strong earthquakes in unoccupied areas. The term natural has consequently been uncertain as a result of the events merely don't seem to be hazards or disasters while not human participation.
A green economy is well-defined as low carbon, resource competent and socially inclusive. It is as an alternative vision for growth and development, one that can create growth and enhancements in people’s lives in ways consistent with sustainable expansion. A Green Economy promotes a triple bottom line: sustaining and advancing economic, environmental and social well-being. In this scenario, growth in employment and income are driven by public and private investment into economic activities, infrastructure and assets that allow reduced carbon emissions and pollution, enhanced energy and resource efficiency, and prevention of the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. A Green Economy effort to remedy difficulties through a variety of institutional reforms and regulatory, tax, and expenditure-based economic policies and tools.
Renewable energy typically tops the list of changes we can adopt to stave off the harmful effects. Renewable energy is one of the most effective tools we have in the fight against climate change. This Energy cannot be depreciated. And it is constantly recharged. It includes hydroelectricity/micro hydro, wind power, solar power, and biomass and bio fuels. Sustainable power source originates from non-customary vitality that is constantly recharged by characteristic procedures. It's pulled in a lot of consideration inside the on-going past because of weariness of petroleum products and inside the post for exchange vitality for a perfect and green future. Renewable energy is becoming increasingly competitive with fossil fuels worldwide. In some places, new renewable energy is already cheaper than continuing to operate old, inefficient and dirty fossil fuel-fired or nuclear power plants.The energy obtained from geothermal heat, sunlight, tides, algae, rain, wind and plants comes under green energy.
Global environmental health encompasses the natural world. But humans disturb this balance by producing toxic waste that harms the Earth, burning fossil fuels, and overconsuming natural resources. The effects of our actions in a highly industrialized society are alarming and undeniable. In a sustainable world, natural systems are allowed to flourish, everyone has access to clean water and air, and humans are treated ethically and equally. Recent research highlights the growing recognition that we as humans are dependent upon the very resources our industrialized society is degrading. There is a need to create long-term sustainability, which will profoundly affect the wellbeing of both the planet and its individual citizens. Environmental health encompasses a broad spectrum of challenges. With human society and economic development evolution, a shift of environmental risks has occurred over the past 20 years ranging from more regional effects to global impacts.
Climate change together with other natural and human-made health stressors influences human health and cause disease in several ways. Some existing health threats will intensify and new health threats will emerge. Public health can be affected by disruptions of physical, biological, and ecological systems. The resulting health effects due to these disruptions include increased respiratory and cardiovascular disease, injuries and premature deaths related to extreme weather events, changes in the prevalence and geographical distribution of food- and water-borne illnesses and other infectious diseases, and threats to mental health. Scientists, clinicians, and public health professionals have called for attention to climate change on both practical and ethical grounds. Several well-established principles point to a vigorous, proactive public health approach to climate change.
A variety of extreme weather events, including hurricanes, flood, blizzards, and droughts. These events can lead to severe infrastructure damage and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of these events and the resulting health impacts of these events can be severe and include direct impacts such as injury, deaths, and mental health as well as indirect, such as population displacement and outbreaks of many diseases.Further intense and recurrent precipitation events lead to flooding, increasing exposure to toxic chemicals in runoff, waterborne diseases. Intense hurricanes result in death and injury, infrastructure damage, and increases in stress and anxiety in vulnerable populations.
Green Nanotechnology refers to the use of nanotechnology in improving the sustainability of processes that produce negative externalities in the environment. The design and development of clean technological products in order to minimize or mitigate the risk to the environment and living health is highly encouraging. Green Applied Sciencesignificantly contributes to environmental health and results shown to alleviate potential environmental and human health risks. Biggest advantages include increased energy efficiency, reduced waste and greenhouse emissions and minimized consumption of non-renewable raw materials.